"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Alabama​​

2,382,000

​4,345,000

--

--

--

--

--

3,013,000

1,086,000

​--

​   284,000​​

701,588,976

  11,110,000

712,698,976

Coal

Natural Gas

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electic Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    3.37                              4.69                               7.12                    (24/3.37)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

"Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector"         Public Information

Alabama

2

U.S. Accumulative Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)

1 State Subtotal:   $3,475,608,000,000 USD​                                                       1 State Subtotal Acreage:  3,475,608

Cost:  $3,475,608,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)
      
This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.   


Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
  Source and Industry Sector - April 2016

(Megawatthours)

2

U.S. Department of Energy

1000 Independence Ave., SW

Washington, DC  20585

Alabama Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Alabama's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Alabama's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt.  ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia


Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 7,144 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 62,583,008 mWh's annually and 38,935 installed megawatts on 233,614 acres. Currently Alabama consumes 2,309,336,077 gallons of gasoline annually. Electric vehicles would have a net energy reduction, at-load, effect of 84,521,700 megawatt hours of equivalent electricity. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 21,938,692 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 57,733,401,925 miles driven in Alabama.  This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 1,709,918,251 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 16,500,711 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

1 U.S. gallon of gasoline weighs 6.073 lbs. The combustion of 1 U.S. gallon (3.8 L) of gasoline produces 8.74 kilograms (19.3 lb) of carbon dioxide (2.3 kg/l),  wikipedia       

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Alabama Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
 
Other Alabama Spent Same Source Consumption  
Trillions of btu's converted to megawatt equivalents)

712,698,976 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 81,358 megawatts per hour averaged 

x 7.12 (multplier)  = 579,268 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 Acres  = 3,475,608  acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 9.34  acres
= 68.52  acres of every sq mile of Alabama's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage) 

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor

Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

166,397,636

​186,590,810

84,521,700

42,114,314

2,491,104

2,256,647

10,257,487

126,981,817

25,290,397

​54,687,064

​                 --​​

To replace Alabama's energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

Solar PV to replace all of Alabama's spent fuels:  5,430  sq miles

= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 9.34 square miles of Alabama's land surface (excluding surface water)

Alabama Energy Production Esimates 2013

Total

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis

U.S. Energy Information Administration


                                                                  3.2%
                 Square Miles                         Water                          Net Land Sq Miles                     Net Land Acres
                       52,419                         1,677 sq mi                               50,742                                    32,474,880

11,110,000

(Includes production less power generation)