Cost:  $1,872,264,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Maryland

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

Maryland Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

                                            21.%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Land Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      12,407                    2,605 sq mi                          9,802                                     6,273,280

(Includes production less power generation)

2

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
20 State Subtotal:   $74,714,418,000,000 USD
20 State Subtotal Acreage:  74,714,418

"Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector"         Public Information

2

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 7,570 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 66,315,421 mWh's annually and 49,053 installed megawatts on 294,318 acres. Currently Maryland consumes 2,447,063,469 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 89,562,523 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 23,247,102 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 61,176,586,725 miles driven in Maryland. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 1,811,896,748 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 17,484,803 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

Total

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Coal

Natural Gas

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Interstate ​Net Flow of Electricity

Maryland Energy Consumption Estimates 2014
Maryland Energy Production Estimates 2014

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

689,000

407,000

--

--

--

--

12,000

1,281,000

197,000

--

    109,000

2,695,000

Maryland

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

Maryland Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Maryland Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents

Solar PV to replace all of Maryland's spent fuels:  2,925 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 3.35 square miles of Maryland's land surface (excluding surface water)

58,276,901

63,072,196

89,562,523

32,823,961

3,575,467

586,142

6,699,327

42,679,662

4,316,294

15,767,224

15,658,224

   86,133,591

419,151,512

     2,695,000

​421,846,512

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    3.84                              4.71                              6.25                   (24/3.7)

​NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Maryland's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Maryland's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

To replace Maryland's energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

421,846,512 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 48,155 megawatts per hour averaged

x 6.48 (multplier)  =  312,044 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 1,872,264 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 3.35 acres
= 191.04 acres of every sq mile of Maryland's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)