Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 7,505 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 65,751,219 mWh's annually and 60,040 installed megawatts on 360,240 acres. Currently Massachusetts consumes 2,426,244,207 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 88,800,538 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 23,049,319 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 60,656,105,175 miles driven in Massachusetts. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 1,796,481,393 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 17,336,045 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

"Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector"         Public Information

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Masschusetts' minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Massachusetts' approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

Massachusetts Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Massachusetts Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

123,000

1,577,000

--

--

--

--

--

489,000

103,000

--

    174,000

2,466,000

To replace Massachusetts' energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

Massachusetts

310,937,781 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 35,495 megawatts per hour averaged

x 10.30 (multplier)  = 365,598 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 2,193,588 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 2.29 acres
= 279.47 acres of every sq mile of Massachusetts' land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    2.33                              4.62                              10.30                  (24/2.33)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center

Massachusetts Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

Total

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Massachusetts Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

                                           25.7%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Land Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      10,565                    2,715 sq mi                          7,850                                      5,024,000

2

Massachusetts Energy Production Estimates 2014

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

Solar PV to replace all of Massachusetts' spent fuels:  3,427 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 2.29 square miles of Massachusetts' land surface (excluding surface water)

2

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Massachusetts

Coal

Natural Gas

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

​Net Interstate Flow of Electricity

Cost:  $2,193,588,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
21 State Subtotal:   $76,908,006,000,000 USD
21 State Subtotal Acreage:  76,908,006

8,639,825

12,538,393

88,800,538

49,294,556

3,370,317

2,491,104

6,740,634

17,183,186

2,417,411

18,082,485

18,670,470

   80,242,862

308,471,781

     2,466,000

310,937,781