2

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Cost:  $2,860,068,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    3.53                              5.43                              6.79              (24/3.53)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center 

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

1,259,000

855,000

--

--

--

--

2,000

1,255,000

--

--

 1,089,000

4,460,000

Minnesota Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Minnesota Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

Minnesota

614,979,450 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 70,203 megawatts per hour averaged

x 6.79 (multplier)  = 476,678 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 2,860,068 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 17.82 acres
= 35.91 acres of every sq mile of Minnesota's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

Minnesota Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

To replace Minnesota's energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Minnesota

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
23 State Subtotal:   $82,961,396,000,000 USD
23 State Subtotal Acreage:  82,961396

Minnesota Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plaqte

Total

290,501,556

142,691,216

81,532,375

47,067,215

11,605,614

--

21,421,496

37,694,146

1,523,969

47,770,586

50,051,000

31,886,133

   46,774,144

610,519,450

     4,460,000

​614,979,450

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 6,891 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 60,369,601 mWh's annually and 56,988 installed megawatts on 341,928 acres. Currently Minnesota consumes 2,227,660,519 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 81,532,375 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 21,162,774 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 55,691,512,975 miles driven in Minnesota. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 1,649,442,650 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 15,917,121 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Coal

Natural Gas

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

​Interstate Flow of Electricity

​Biofuels

2

"Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector"         Public Information

Minnesota Energy Production Estimates 2014

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Solar PV to replace all of Minnesota's spent fuels:  4,468 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 6.79 square miles of Minnesota's land surface (excluding surface water)

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Minnesota's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Minnesota's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

                                            8.4%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Land Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      86,939                    7,302 sq mi                         79,637                                   50,967,680