Cost:  $2,975,148,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

Montana Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    2.36                              5.97                              10.16               (24/2.36)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center 

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

230,903,305

23,240,536

17,115,351

16,617,130

2,432,489

--

11,810,764

--

31,209,362

2,608,332

38,961,603

   50,789,218

425,688,090

     1,844,000

427,532,090

828,000

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

794,000

--

    222,000

1,844,000

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Solar PV to replace all of Montana's spent fuels:  4,648 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 10.16 square miles of Montana's land surface (excluding surface water)

2

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Montana Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Montana's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Montana's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

Total

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

Montana

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

​Crude Oil

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 1,446 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 12,672,842 mWh's annually and 18,262 installed megawatts on 109,572 acres. Currently Montana consumes 467,632,540 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 17,115,351 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 4,442,509 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 11,690,813,500 miles driven in Montana. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 346,252,513 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 3,341,336 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
26 State Subtotal:   $90,570,776,000,000 USD
26 State Subtotal Acreage:  90,570,776

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Montana

Montana Energy Production Estimates 2014

2

Montana Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Montana Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

To replace Montana's energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

427,532,090 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 48,805 megawatts per hour averaged

x 10.16 (multplier)  = 495,858 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 2,975,148 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 31.31 acres
= 20.44 acres of every sq mile of Montana's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

"Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector"         Public Information

                                              1%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Land Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
     147,040                   1,470 sq mi                        145,570                                  93,164,800