2

Solar PV to replace all of Pennsylvania's spent fuels:  43,666 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 1.02 square miles of Pennsylvania's land surface (excluding surface water)

455,651,544

1,306,694,026

162,097,616

115,938,920

14,213,947

1,641,198

43,320,213

235,360,422

7,055,084

43,667,591

49,018,627

4,601,216​

       11,371,158

   2,450,631,562

       14,741,000

2,465,372,562

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Biofuels

​Crude Oil

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Energy Consumption Estimates 2014
Pennsylvania Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

                                             2.7%
Square Miles                     Water                    Net Land Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      46,055                  1.243 sq miles                       44,812                                   28,679,680

2,465,372,562 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 281,435 megawatts per hour averaged

x 16.55 (multplier)  = 4,657,749 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 27,946,494 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 1.02 acres
= 627.45 acres of every sq mile of Pennsylvania's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

2

Average Available Sunlit Hours:                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    1.45                              4.44                              16.55              (24/1.45)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center 

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

3,415,000

4,506,000

--

--

--

--

25,000

5,925,000

301,000

-

      569,000

14,741,000

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 13,701 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 120,023,099 mWh's annually and 137,010 installed megawatts on 822,060 acres. Currently Pennsylvania consumes 4,428,896,612 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 162,097,616 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 42,074,517 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 110,722,415,300 miles driven in Pennsylvania. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 3,279,319,644 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 31,645,434 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Pennsylvania Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Pennsylvania Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Energy Production Estimates 2014

To replace Pennsylvania's energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
38 State Subtotal:   $162,955,494,000,000 USD
38 State Subtotal Acreage:  162,955,494

Total

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

Cost:  $27,946,494,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - April 2016

(Megawatthours)

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Pennsylvania's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Pennsylvania's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia