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If Washington, DC's Total Consumed Energy and Fuels Megawatt Equivalents Were Replaced with Solar PV: 49,034,159 Megawatthours p/year (divided by 8,760 hours = one year) = 5,597 megawatthours demand p/hr x 6.48 for the Averaged Minimum of 3.7 hours of available solar radiation for the month of December, consistent with the "Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors" (December solar radiation availability result would be; 24 hours divided by 3.7 hours of useful December solar availability, = 6.48 multiplier)
Result: Washington DC, must have an equivalent 36,268 megawatts of solar PV array collection, at-load, during the month of December to meet their 24 hour (averaged consumptive use) electric and fuels replacement demand proportionally, with any additional daily solar availability to be stored in batteries for later daily use, to displace/replace the 21.3 hours of unavailable solar p/day for the averaged month of December. The maximum available solar radiation hours of the average kilowatthours of useful solar availability are 8.0 (kWh/sq meter/day - during the month of June) will not provide for year-round adequate electric generation and fuels replacements. Only the minimum seasonal PV array built-out acreage for useful available hours of solar radiation will generate the equivalent energy needed to meet demand of comparable energy and fuels consumption for Washington, DC throughout the year.
It requires approximately six acres of solar PV to generate one megawatt of electricity under ideal weather conditions. (Many solar installations require more than 6 acres.) This means it would require 239,100 acres of solar PV to replace the 5,597 megawatthours of DC's consumed hourly average equivalent energy use, with adequate megawatt storage for the accommodating month of December to meet demand, at-load, on the grid 24/7. In other words, 5,597 mWh's x 6.48 multiplier-hours adjustment x 6 acres per/megawatt. For Washington DC, this would require 5.53 acres of solar PV for every 1 acre to replace the energy and fuels Washington, DC consumes. This would also mean that it would require 373.58 square miles of solar PV to replace their energy and fuels needs, however, Washington, DC only has 61.4 square miles of territory to work with. (6.08 times more land than Washington DC has.)
In addition, any failure of ideal weather conditions during bad weather days would result in blackouts needing replacement backups. In other words, the replacement for "alternative energy" would be standard fire combustion which is laughable by definition. No one would build a standard fire combustion power plant to replace a standard fire combustion power plant because of less than ideal weather conditions. However, this is exactly what solar PV and several other alternative energy technologies require. In real terms, without tax credits, subsidies, feed-in tariffs and other cost advantages of solar energy technologies investors of such alternatives would default against the debt service and capital requirements needed for such comparable generation capacity.
Concerning the cost of the above comparisons during any ideal weather failure of generating service would have a cost of $3,989,480 per hour or, $95,747,520 per day of lost generating capacity. (Example; at $110 per megawatt hour)
Cost: $217,608,000,000 USD - not including land, taxes, interconnections and other costs to replace Washington, DC's energy needs with PV.
BP Solar, and others, have quoted a solar PV installed per-megawatt cost of $6,000,000 USD, and six acres. Their cost estimates go as far back as 2001.
Scientific fact: In terms of energy, heat and fuel value replacement or displacement, it either is, or isn't. We concentrate on is.
Lithor examines all U.S. states independently to replace their published electric and fuel energy consumption with solar PV; Derived estimates are calculated for megawatts needed per-hour averaged, acreage, and installed solar PV cost. It will become quite clear that massive deforestation to meet the current and future fuels and electric generation replacements is not a viable solution to meet their equivalent energy demands.
Sample of Washington, DC's regional available solar radiation comparison to Maryland's solar availability. here
Washington DC: Sq Miles Water 10.1% Net Sq Miles Net Acres 63.8 6.9 sq miles 61.4 39,296
Washington DC: Comparable solar PV energy and electricity utilized to replace all electric generation and fuels consumed.
Below is the power generation comparison of generated electricity and other fuels consumed to be replaced with solar PV collection and converted as electric replacements for fuels consumed. These conversions for all fuels consumed to be replaced with solar PV collection and transmission are expressed for their comparable solar PV energy values. We also examine solar PV as a replacement for energy equivalents, acreage, and as replacements for fuels consumed including light vehicle equivalent transportation fuels demand (to replace gasoline) to provide for electric vehicle transportation by comparison. Heavy duty vehicles such as semi tractor trailer combination vehicles and aviation fuels are not considered because batteries are not able to provide adequate energy to power these vehicles as weighted comparisons.
The maximum averaged available solar hours would be useless to replace electric generation and all other fuel use consumption, including electric transportation, for reasons that will become obvious. Minimum available solar hours must be utilized in order to calculate how much land, and prepped, for massive backup storage that would be required to replace all fuels and electricity consumed in the United States. As anywhere else, these calculations do not include snow, rainfall, dirt and dust debris, fog, mist, ice, and any other mechanical or environmental conditions that degrade operational solar-to-electric production and utilization. These estimates assume clean and clear weather under the best ideal weather conditions available for minimal and maximum solar demand as operational use demands. We understand peak and off-peak demands, however, again, if one can not meet peak demand and create a surplus, there is no surplus of converted-solar electricity to store for off-peak demands. It should be obvious that additional battery storage banks cannot store needed off-peak surplus that isn't there. This is why we utilize an annual state averaged generated megawatthour consumptive use rate, divided by 8,760 hours, (one year) to meet a given regional hourly averaged fuels demand replacement as an electric generation demand, and as a replacement under ideal weather conditions.
Washington, DC has an average of 3.7 kilowatt hours of mean minimum-averaged solar availability over the last 30 years for the month of December. The mean maximum-averaged solar kilowatt hours are; 8.0 kilowatt hours-per-square meter-per-day, occurring in the month of June. Washington, DC would need a PV solar array(s) build-out to meet its minimum solar radiation availability factor to be placed into storage batteries for averaged occurring use. Note; during times of inclement weather the minimum solar build-out would fail at-load requirements.
To replace Washington, DC's generated electricity and needed energy with solar PV exclusively, and all other fuels to be replaced that Washington, DC consumes would require more land than Washington, DC has. Washington, DC also consumed 1,318,819 megawatthours of Other Petroleum, 10,345,409 megawatthours of equivalent Natural Gas, 3,370,317 equivalent megawatthours of Motor Gasoline, and 1,113,670 equivalent megawatthours of Distillate Fuel Oil.
This means in addition to the 35,901,207 megawatthours of electricity Washington, DC consumed in 2014, (Net Interstate Flow of Electricity - Washington, DC has no conventional power plants.) they also consumed 16,499,899 megawatthours of other equivalent fuels and energy.