Vermont Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

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--

--

--

--

--

--

--

125,000

--

   73,000

198,000

--

3,165,167

10,345,409

7,766,383

2,960,017

146,535

1,699,812

15,503,460

3,157,396

594,934

        766,203

46,105,316

       198,000

46,303,316

2

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
45 State Subtotal:   $198,202,578,000,000 USD
45 State Subtotal Acreage:  198,202,578

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

Vermont Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Vermont Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Average Available Sunlit Hours                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                  2.33                               4.62                             10.30               (24/2.33)

​NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center 

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Vermont Energy Production Estimates 2014
Vermont Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 874 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 7,660,127 mWh's annually and 8,390 installed megawatts on 50,340 acres. Currently Vermont consumes 282,661,448 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 10,345,409 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 2,685,282 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 7,066,536,200 miles driven in Vermont. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 209,293,087 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 2,019,678 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Vermont

                                            4.1%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      9,616                     394 sq miles                      9,222                               5,902,080

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Vermont's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Vermont's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

2

Solar PV to replace all of Vermont's spent fuels:  510 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 18.07 square miles of Vermont's land surface (excluding surface water)

Cost:  $326,610,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)

To replace the state of Vermont energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Total

46,303,316 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 5,285 megawatts per hour averaged

x 10.30 (multplier)  = 54,435 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 326,610 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 18.07 acres
= 35.41 acres of every sq mile of Vermont's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Vermont