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"Solar Radiation for 2-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Collectors (kWh/m  /day)  Uncertainty ± 9%"  Virginia

Note; The replacement of gasoline combustion vehicles replaced by electric vehicles would have net reduction of energy effect of approximately 11,120 megawatts per hour.  (Example; Chevy Volt automobile with a rating of 100 miles per 38 kilowatt hours with an 80% recharge in 20 minutes.) This would have a net reduction of 97,411,624 mWh's annually and 72,057 installed megawatts on 432,342 acres. Currently Virginia consumes 3,594,524,836 gallons of gasoline annually which is equivalent to 131,559,609 megawatt hours. Electric vehicles similar to the Chevy Volt would only utilize about 34,147,985 megawatt hours for the same rated miles when compared to an automobile combustion ratio of 25 mpg for a total of 89,863,120,900 miles driven in Virginia. This would also have the affect of reducing the consumption of gasoline in terms of energy by 2,661,519,781 gallons of gasoline. This would also reduce the equivalent of 25,683,665 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. One gallon of U.S. automotive gasoline is equivalent to 36.6 kilowatt hours of electricity.

762,131,345 megawatthours divided by 8,760 hours per year = 87,001 megawatts per hour averaged

x 7.12 (multplier)  = 619,447 mW p/hr minimum under ideal weather averaged - accessible with battery storage
x 6 acres = 3,716,682 acres
= 1 acre of solar PV in every 6.82 acres
= 93.84 acres of every sq mile of Virginia's land surface.  (excluding surface water acreage)

Virginia Solar Radiation 2 Axis Flat Plate

Total

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

Average Available Sunlit Hours                    Minimum                    Maximum                    Multiplier
SolarDirect.com                                                    3.37                              4.5                                7.12                 (24/3.7)

NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center 

910,000

1,448,000

--

--

--

--

15,000

2,407,000

132,000

--

    326,000

5,238,000

Source: Independent Statistics Analysis
U.S. Energy Information Administration

Virginia Energy Production Estimates 2014

Solar PV to replace all of Virginia's spent fuels:  5,807 sq miles
= 1 square mile of solar PV in every 6.82 square miles of Virginia's land surface (excluding surface water)

Virginia Energy Consumption Estimates - 2014
Other Virginia Spent Same Source Consumption

Trillions of btu's converted to megawatthour equivalents
(Includes production less power generation)

To replace the state of Virginia energy and fuels consumption with solar PV the estimates are as follows.

                                            7.4%
Square Miles                    Water                    Net Sq Miles                    Net Land Acres
      42,774                  3,165 sq miles                   39,609                             25,349,760

Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy
Source and Industry Sector - March 2016

(Megawatthours)

114,325,549

126,624,063

131,559,609

59,141,744

6,271,721

2,579,025

8,542,675

90,232,769

2,534,946

44,077,890

36,923,334

1,758,426​

  132,321,594

756,893,345

      5,238,000

762,131,345

Lithor.com  Copyright  2012-16  |  All Rights Reserved

Virginia

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC  20585

This installed PV solar energy estimate does not include land cost, taxes, additional infrastructure, or any other cost.  And, additional at-load losses when the solar collection minimum service hours can not be met because of less than ideal weather, nor the cost of future growth.

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Virginia Energy Consumption Estimates 2014

Coal Fired

Natural Gas Fired

Motor Gasoline

Distillate Fuel Oil

LPG

Residual Fuel

Other Petroleum

Nuclear Electric Power

Hydroelectric

Biomass

Other Renewables

​Biofuels

Net Interstate Flow of Electricity

Other Spent Energy Same Source Data: Lithor


Conversion Tool:  "Online Conversion"
http://www.onlineconversion.com/

U.S. Accumulative + DC Solar PV To Replace Fuels & Energy  (2014)
46 State Subtotal:   $201,919,260,000,000 USD
46 State Subtotal Acreage:  201,919,260

The above megawatt estimated requirements are for the replacement of energy and fuels consumed for electricity, heating and cooling, gasoline transportation fuels converted to its electric megawatt equivalent utilizing solar PV. We utilize Virginia's minimum annual ideal weather 30-year monthly-averaged useful daily hours of solar concentration.  These conversions would be Virginia's approximate energy demand equivalents in terms of energy, land, and cost.  For this conversion data set, one solar PV megawatt is equal to approximately six acres.  However, other solar PV installations are currently utilizing up to ten or more acres per installed megawatt. There are thermal solar installations utilizing 44 acres per installed megawatt. ("resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 44 acres (180,000 m  ) per 1 megawatt.") ref; Thermal Power Towers - "Power Tower Designs"  wikipedia

Cost:  $3,716,682,000,000 USD
($6,000,000 USD per installed megawatt - BP Solar quote 2001, and others. +)